Below are listed my current publications to date. Where an open access version of a manuscript is not available please feel free to contact me for a copy at firstname.lastname@example.org.
* indicates join/sole corresponding author
Emmott, Jovanovic & Slavov (2018) Ribosome stoichiometry: from form to function.
The existence of eukaryotic ribosomes with distinct ribosomal protein (RP) stoichiometry and regulatory roles in protein synthesis been speculated for over sixty years. Recent advances in mass spectrometry and high throughput analysis have begun to identify and characterize distinct ribosome stoichiometry in yeast or mammalian systems. In addition to RP stoichiometry, ribosomes play host to a vast array of protein modifications, effectively expanding the number of human RPs from 80 to many thousands of distinct proteoforms. Is it possible these proteoforms combine to function as a ‘ribosome code’ to tune protein synthesis? We outline the specific benefits that translational regulation by specialized ribosomes can offer and discuss the means and methodologies available to correlate and characterize RP stoichiometry with function. We highlight previous research with a focus on formulating hypotheses that can guide future experiments and crack the ‘ribosome code’.
Emmott*, de Rougemont, Haas & Goodfellow (2017) Spatial and temporal control of norovirus protease activity is determined by polyprotein processing and intermolecular interactions within the viral replication complex.
Norovirus infections are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis and a significant burden to human health globally. A vital process for norovirus replication is the processing of the nonstructural polyprotein, by an internal protease, into the necessary viral components required to form the viral replication complex. This cleavage occurs at different rates resulting in the accumulation of stable precursor forms. In this report, we characterized how precursor forms of the norovirus protease accumulate during infection. Using stable forms of the protease precursors we demonstrated that these are all proteolytically active in vitro, but that when expressed in cells, activity is determined by both substrate and protease localization. Whilst all precursors could cleave a replication complex-associated substrate, only a subset of precursors lacking NS4 were capable of efficiently cleaving a cytoplasmic substrate. For the first time, the full range of protein-protein interactions between murine and human norovirus proteins were mapped by LUMIER assay, with conserved interactions between replication complex members, modifying the localization of a subset of precursors. Finally, we demonstrate that re-targeting of a poorly cleaved artificial cytoplasmic substrate to the replication complex is sufficient to permit efficient cleavage in the context of norovirus infection. This offers a model for how norovirus can regulate the timing of substrate cleavage throughout the replication cycle. The norovirus protease represents a key target in the search for effective antiviral treatments for norovirus infection. An improved understanding of protease function and regulation, as well as identification of interactions between the other non-structural proteins, offers new avenues for antiviral drug design.
Fleith, Mears et. al. (2018) IFIT3 and IFIT2/3 promote IFIT1-mediated translation inhibition by enhancing binding to non-self RNA.
Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are highly expressed during the cell-intrinsic immune response to viral infection. IFIT1 inhibits translation by binding directly to the 5′ end of foreign RNAs, particularly those with non-self cap structures, precluding the recruitment of the cap-binding eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F and subsequent 40S recruitment. Interaction of different IFIT family members is well described, but little is known of the molecular basis of IFIT association or its impact on function. Here, we reconstituted different complexes of IFIT1, IFIT2 and IFIT3 in vitro, which enabled us to reveal critical aspects of IFIT complex assembly. IFIT1 interacts rapidly and strongly with IFIT3 forming a stable heterotetramer. IFIT2 and IFIT3 homodimers dissociate to form a more stable heterodimer that associates with IFIT1, forming an IFIT1:IFIT2:IFIT3 trimer. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed a C-terminal YxxxL motif in IFIT1 that mediates its association with IFIT3. Using various reporter mRNAs, we demonstrate for the first time that IFIT3 stabilises IFIT1 binding to cap0-mRNA and enhances its translation inhibition activity. Disrupting the binding interface between IFIT1 and IFIT3 abrogated this enhancement. This work reveals molecular aspects of IFIT assembly and provides an important missing link between IFIT interaction and function.
Kitano, Hosmillo, Emmott et. al. (2018) Selection and Characterization of Rupintrivir-Resistant Norwalk Virus Replicon Cells in vitro.
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide yet, despite their impact on society, vaccines and antivirals are currently lacking. A HuNoV replicon system has been widely applied to the evaluation of antiviral compounds and has thus accelerated the process of drug discovery against HuNoV infection. Rupintrivir, an irreversible inhibitor of the human rhinovirus 3C protease, has been reported to inhibit the replication of the Norwalk virus replicon via the inhibition of the norovirus protease. Here we report, for the first time, the generation of rupintrivir-resistant human Norwalk virus replicon in vitro. Sequence analysis revealed that these replicon cells contained amino acid substitutions of alanine 105 to valine (A105V) and isoleucine 109 to valine (I109V) in the viral protease NS6. The application of a cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay for protease activity demonstrated that these substitutions were involved in the enhanced resistance to rupintrivir. Furthermore, we validated the effect of these mutations using the reverse genetics in murine norovirus (MNV), demonstrating that a recombinant MNV with a single I109V substitution in the protease also showed reduced susceptibility to rupintrivir. In summary, using a combination of different approaches, we have demonstrated that, under the correct conditions, mutations in the norovirus protease can rapidly occur that lead to the generation of resistant mutants.
Smielewska, Emmott, Goodfellow & Jalal (2018) In vitro sensitivity of human parainfluenza 3 clinical isolates to ribavirin, favipiravir and zanamivir.
Human parainfluenza type 3 (HPIV3) is an important respiratory pathogen. Although a number of potential therapeutic candidates exist, there is currently no licensed therapy or vaccine. Ribavirin (RBV), favipiravir (FVP) and zanamivir (ZNV) are inhibitors with proven activity against influenza and with potential inhibitory activity against HPIV3 laboratory adapted strains in vitro.
To evaluate RBV, FVP and ZNV as inhibitors of minimally passaged UK clinical strains of HPIV3 as well as a laboratory adapted strain MK9 in vitro.
The inhibitory action of RBV, FVP and ZNV was evaluated against nine minimally passaged clinical strains and a laboratory adapted strain MK9 using plaque reduction and growth curve inhibition in a cell culture model.
Clinical isolates were found to be at least as susceptible as the laboratory adapted strains to RBV and FVP and significantly more susceptible to ZNV. However the inhibitory concentrations achieved by ZNV against clinical strains remain prohibitively high in vivo.
RBV, FVP and ZNV were found to be effective inhibitors of HPIV3 in vitro. The lack of efficacy of RBV in vivo may be due to inability to reach required therapeutic levels. FVP, on the other hand, is a good potential therapeutic agent against HPIV3. Further studies using wild type clinical strains, as well as better formulation and delivery mechanisms may improve the utility of these three inhibitors.
Hunter, Scourfield, Emmott, & Graham (2017) VPS18 recruits VPS41 to the human HOPS complex via a RING-RING interaction.
Eukaryotic cells use conserved multisubunit membrane tethering complexes, including CORVET and HOPS, to control the fusion of endomembranes. These complexes have been extensively studied in yeast, but to date there have been far fewer studies of metazoan CORVET and HOPS. Both of these complexes comprise six subunits: a common four-subunit core and two unique subunits. Once assembled, these complexes function to recognise specific endosomal membrane markers and facilitate SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. CORVET promotes the homotypic fusion of early endosomes, while HOPS promotes the fusion of lysosomes to late endosomes and autophagosomes. Many of the subunits of both CORVET and HOPS contain putative C-terminal zinc-finger domains. Here, the contribution of these domains to the assembly of the human CORVET and HOPS complexes has been examined. Using biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that the zinc-containing RING domains of human VPS18 and VPS41 interact directly to form a stable heterodimer. In cells, these RING domains are able to integrate into endogenous HOPS, showing that the VPS18 RING domain is required to recruit VPS41 to the core complex subunits. Importantly, this mechanism is not conserved throughout eukaryotes, as yeast Vps41 does not contain a C-terminal zinc-finger motif. The subunit analogous to VPS41 in human CORVET is VPS8, in which the RING domain has an additional C-terminal segment that is predicted to be disordered. Both the RING and disordered C-terminal domains are required for integration of VPS8 into endogenous CORVET complexes, suggesting that HOPS and CORVET recruit VPS41 and VPS8 via distinct molecular interactions.
Mohl, Emmott & Roy (2017) Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals the importance of kinase regulation during orbivirus infection.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes infections in wild and domesticated ruminants with high morbidity and mortality and is responsible for significant economic losses in both developing and developed countries. BTV serves as a model for the study of other members of the Orbivirus genus. Previously, the importance of casein kinase 2 for BTV replication was demonstrated. To identify intracellular signalling pathways and novel host-cell kinases involved during BTV infection, the phosphoproteome of BTV infected cells was analysed. Over 1000 phosphosites were identified using mass spectrometry, which were then used to determine the corresponding kinases involved during BTV infection. This analysis yielded protein kinase A (PKA) as a novel kinase activated during BTV infection. Subsequently, the importance of PKA for BTV infection was validated using a PKA inhibitor and activator. Our data confirmed that PKA was essential for efficient viral growth. Further, we showed that PKA is also required for infection of equid cells by African horse sickness virus, another member of the Orbivirus genus. Thus, despite their preference in specific host species, orbiviruses may utilize the same host signaling pathways during their replication.
Emmott* et. al. (2017) Norovirus-mediated modification of the translational landscape via virus and host-induced cleavage of initiation factors.
Noroviruses produce viral RNAs lacking a 5′ cap structure and instead use a virus-encoded viral protein genome-linked (VPg) protein covalently linked to viral RNA to interact with translation initiation factors and drive viral protein synthesis. Norovirus infection results in the induction of the innate response leading to interferon stimulated gene (ISG) transcription. However, the translation of the induced ISG mRNAs is suppressed. A SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach was employed to analyze changes to protein abundance in both whole cell and m7GTP-enriched samples to demonstrate that diminished host mRNA translation correlates with changes to the composition of the eukaryotic initiation factor complex. The suppression of host ISG translation correlates with the activity of the viral protease (NS6) and the activation of cellular caspases leading to the establishment of an apoptotic environment. These results indicate that noroviruses exploit the differences between viral VPg-dependent and cellular cap-dependent translation in order to diminish the host response to infection.
Conley, Emmott, et. al. (2017) Vesivirus 2117 capsids more closely resemble sapovirus particles than other known vesivirus structures.
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that, in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of Chinese hamster ovary cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher diseases, respectively) caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae, a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive-sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus-like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus. We present a structural comparison of several members of the Caliciviridae, showing that the distal P domain of vesivirus 2117 is morphologically distinct from that seen in other known vesivirus structures. Furthermore, at intermediate resolutions, we found a high level of structural similarity between vesivirus 2117 and Caliciviridae from other genera: sapovirus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Phylogenetic analysis confirms vesivirus 2117 as a vesivirus closely related to canine vesiviruses. We postulate that morphological differences in virion structure seen between vesivirus clades may reflect differences in receptor usage.
Emmott*, Sweeney & Goodfellow. (2015) A cell-based FRET sensor reveals inter- and intragenogroup variation in norovirus protease activity and polyprotein cleavage.
The viral protease represents a key drug target for the development of antiviral therapeutics. Because many protease inhibitors mimic protease substrates, differences in substrate recognition between proteases may affect their sensitivity to a given inhibitor. Here we use a cell-based FRET sensor to investigate the activity of different norovirus proteases upon cleavage of various norovirus cleavage sites inserted into a linker region separating cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein. Using this system, we demonstrate that differences in substrate processing exist between proteases from human noroviruses (genogroups I (GI) and II) and the commonly used murine norovirus (MNV, genogroup V) model. These altered the cleavage efficiency of specific cleavage sites both within and between genogroups. The differences observed between these proteases may affect sensitivity to protease inhibitors and the suitability of MNV as a model system for testing such molecules against the human norovirus protease. Finally, we demonstrate that replacement of MNV polyprotein cleavage sites with the GI or GII equivalents, with the exception of the NS6-7 junction, leads to the production of infectious virus when the MNV NS6 protease, but not the GI or GII proteases, are present.
Caddy, de Rougemont, Emmott et. al. (2015) Evidence for human norovirus infection of dogs in the UK.
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with an estimated 3 million cases per year in the United Kingdom. HuNoVs have recently been isolated from pet dogs in Europe (M. Summa, C.-H. von Bonsdorff, and L. Maunula, J Clin Virol 53:244-247, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.014), raising concerns about potential zoonotic infections. With 31% of United Kingdom households owning a dog, this could prove to be an important transmission route. To examine this risk, canine tissues were studied for their ability to bind to HuNoV in vitro. In addition, canine stool samples were analyzed for the presence of viral nucleic acid, and canine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HuNoV antibodies. The results showed that seven different genotypes of HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) can bind to canine gastrointestinal tissue, suggesting that infection is at least theoretically possible. Although HuNoV RNA was not identified in stool samples from 248 dogs, serological evidence of previous exposure to HuNoV was obtained in 43/325 canine serum samples. Remarkably, canine seroprevalence for different HuNoV genotypes mirrored the seroprevalence in the human population. Though entry and replication within cells have not been demonstrated, the canine serological data indicate that dogs produce an immune response to HuNoV, implying productive infection. In conclusion, this study reveals zoonotic implications for HuNoV, and to elucidate the significance of this finding, further epidemiological and molecular investigations will be essential.
Royall et. al. (2015) Murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) replication induces translational control of the host by regulating eIF4E activity.
Protein synthesis is a tightly controlled process responding to several stimuli, including viral infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses depend on the translation machinery of the host and can manipulate it by affecting the availability and function of specific eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Previous studies on feline calicivirus and murine norovirus 1 (MNV1) demonstrated that the viral protein, genome-linked (VPg), acts to direct translation by hijacking the host protein synthesis machinery. Here we report that MNV1 infection modulates the MAPK pathway to activate eIF4E phosphorylation. Our results show that the activation of p38 and Mnk during MNV1 infection is important for MNV1 replication. Furthermore, phosphorylated eIF4E relocates to the polysomes, and this contributes to changes in the translational state of specific host mRNAs. We propose that global translational control of the host by eIF4E phosphorylation is a key component of the host-pathogen interaction.
Chung et. al. (2014) Norovirus translation requires an interaction between the C-terminus of VPg and eIF4G.
Viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation machinery to enable translation of the viral genome in the presence of high levels of cellular mRNAs. Noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in man, have evolved a mechanism that relies on the interaction of translation initiation factors with the virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5′ end of the viral RNA. To further characterize this novel mechanism of translation initiation, we have used proteomics to identify the components of the norovirus translation initiation factor complex. This approach revealed that VPg binds directly to the eIF4F complex, with a high affinity interaction occurring between VPg and eIF4G. Mutational analyses indicated that the C-terminal region of VPg is important for the VPg-eIF4G interaction; viruses with mutations that alter or disrupt this interaction are debilitated or non-viable. Our results shed new light on the unusual mechanisms of protein-directed translation initiation.
Hwang al. (2014) Murine norovirus: propagation, quantification, and genetic manipulation.
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a positive-sense, plus-stranded RNA virus in the Caliciviridae family. It is the most common pathogen in biomedical research colonies. MNV is also related to the human noroviruses, which cause the majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Like the human noroviruses, MNV is an enteric virus that replicates in the intestine and is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. MNV replicates in murine macrophages and dendritic cells in cells in culture and in the murine host. This virus is often used to study mechanisms in norovirus biology, because human noroviruses are refractory to growth in cell culture. MNV combines the availability of a cell culture and reverse genetics system with the ability to study infection in the native host. Herein, we describe a panel of techniques that are commonly used to study MNV biology.
Emmott* & Goodfellow. (2014) Identification of protein interaction partners in mammalian cells using SILAC-immunoprecipitation quantitative proteomics.
Quantitative proteomics combined with immuno-affinity purification, SILAC immunoprecipitation, represent a powerful means for the discovery of novel protein:protein interactions. By allowing the accurate relative quantification of protein abundance in both control and test samples, true interactions may be easily distinguished from experimental contaminants. Low affinity interactions can be preserved through the use of less-stringent buffer conditions and remain readily identifiable. This protocol discusses the labeling of tissue culture cells with stable isotope labeled amino acids, transfection and immunoprecipitation of an affinity tagged protein of interest, followed by the preparation for submission to a mass spectrometry facility. This protocol then discusses how to analyze and interpret the data returned from the mass spectrometer in order to identify cellular partners interacting with a protein of interest. As an example this technique is applied to identify proteins binding to the eukaryotic translation initiation factors: eIF4AI and eIF4AII.
Caddy, Emmott, et. al. (2013) Serological evidence for multiple strains of canine norovirus in dogs in the UK.
Noroviruses are associated with intestinal disease in humans, cows, pigs, mice, and, more recently, dogs. In 2007, the first canine norovirus (CNV) was identified and characterized in Italy. Subsequent studies have identified CNV in stools of dogs from Portugal, Greece, and the United States. To investigate the prevalence of CNV in the UK dog population, 228 canine stool samples were screened for CNV by qPCR, and 396 serum samples were screened for anti-CNV antibodies. qPCR of RNA extracted from canine stool samples did not reveal any CNV-positive samples, based on samples collected from diarrhoeic and control dogs in 2012-2013. CNV virus-like particles to three different CNV strains were produced using recombinant baculoviruses and a seroprevalence screen undertaken. Anti-CNV antibodies were identified at significant levels in canine serum; 38.1% of samples collected between 1999-2001 and 60.1% of samples collected in 2012-2013 were seropositive. The increase in seroprevalence over time (p less than 0.001) suggests that the CNV strains screened for are becoming more widespread. Variation in seroprevalence to different CNV strains was also identified. Two-thirds of the dogs were seropositive to a single strain, whereas the remaining third were seropositive to two or three of the strains analysed. This study has provided the first evidence that CNV is present in the UK, with seroprevalence identified to multiple circulating strains. This warrants further study and increased awareness of this recently discovered canine virus.
Arias, Emmott, Vashist & Goodfellow. (2013) Progress towards the prevention and treatment of norovirus infections.
Noroviruses are now recognized as the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world, yet our ability to prevent and control infection is limited. Recent work has highlighted that, while typically an acute infection in the population, immunocompromised patients often experience long-term infections that may last many years. This cohort of patients and those regularly exposed to infectious material, for example, care workers and others, would benefit greatly from the development of a vaccine or antiviral therapy. While a licensed vaccine or antiviral has yet to be developed, work over the past 10 years in this area has intensified and trials with a vaccine candidate have proven promising. Numerous antiviral targets and small molecule inhibitors that have efficacy in cell culture have now been identified; however, further studies in this area are required in order to make these suitable for clinical use.
Emmott* et. al. (2013) The cellular interactome of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein and functional implications for virus biology.
The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein plays a multifunctional role in the virus life cycle, from regulation of replication and transcription and genome packaging to modulation of host cell processes. These functions are likely to be facilitated by interactions with host cell proteins. The potential interactome of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) N protein was mapped using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled to a green fluorescent protein-nanotrap pulldown methodology and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The addition of the SILAC label allowed discrimination of proteins that were likely to specifically bind to the N protein over background binding. Overall, 142 cellular proteins were selected as potentially binding to the N protein, many as part of larger possible complexes. These included ribosomal proteins, nucleolar proteins, translation initiation factors, helicases, and hnRNPs. The association of selected cellular proteins with IBV N protein was confirmed by immunoblotting, cosedimentation, and confocal microscopy. Further, the localization of selected proteins in IBV-infected cells as well as their activity during virus infection was assessed by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion, demonstrating the functional importance of cellular proteins in the biology of IBV. This interactome not only confirms previous observations made with other coronavirus and IBV N proteins with both overexpressed proteins and infectious virus but also provides novel data that can be exploited to understand the interaction between the virus and the host cell.
Munday, Surtees, Emmott, et al. (2012) Using stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantitative proteomics to investigate the interactions between viral and host proteomes.
Viruses continue to pose some of the greatest threats to human and animal health, and food security worldwide. Therefore, new approaches are required to increase our understanding of virus-host cell interactions and subsequently design more effective therapeutic countermeasures. Quantitative proteomics based on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), coupled to LC-MS/MS and bioinformatic analysis, is providing an excellent resource for studying host cell proteomes and can readily be applied for the study of virus infection. Here, we review this approach and discuss how virus-host cell interactions can best be studied, what is realistically feasible, and the potential limitations. For example, sub-cellular fractionation can reduce sample complexity for LC-MS/MS, increase data return and provide information regarding protein trafficking between different cellular compartments. The key to successful quantitative proteomics combines good experimental design and appropriate sample preparation with statistical analysis and validation of the MS data through the use of independent techniques and functional analysis. The annotation of the human genome and the increasing availability of biological reagents such as antibodies, provide the optimum parameters for studying viruses that infect humans, in human cell lines. SILAC-based quantitative proteomics can also be used to study the interactome of viral proteins with the host cell. Coupling proteomic studies with global transcriptomic and RNA depletion experiments will provide great insights into the complexity of the infection process, and potentially reveal new antiviral targets.
Munday, Emmott, et al. (2010) Quantitative proteomic analysis of the cellular proteome in A549 cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease to which there is no vaccine or efficacious chemotherapeutic strategy. Although RNA synthesis and virus assembly occur in the cytoplasm, HRSV is known to induce nuclear responses in the host cell as replication alters global gene expression. Quantitative proteomics was used to take an unbiased overview of the protein changes in transformed human alveolar basal epithelial cells infected with HRSV. Underpinning this was the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS, which allowed the direct and simultaneous identification and quantification of both cellular and viral proteins. To reduce sample complexity and increase data return on potential protein localization, cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. This resulted in the identification of 1,140 cellular proteins and six viral proteins. The proteomics data were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify defined canonical pathways and functional groupings. Selected data were validated using Western blot, direct and indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and functional assays. The study served to validate and expand upon known HRSV-host cell interactions, including those associated with the antiviral response and alterations in subnuclear structures such as the nucleolus and ND10 (promyelocytic leukemia bodies). In addition, novel changes were observed in mitochondrial proteins and functions, cell cycle regulatory molecules, nuclear pore complex proteins and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking proteins. These data shed light into how the cell is potentially altered to create conditions more favorable for infection. Additionally, the study highlights the application and advantage of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS for the analysis of virus-host interactions.
Emmott et al. (2010) Quantitative proteomics using SILAC coupled to LC-MS/MS reveals changes in the nucleolar proteome in influenza A virus infected cells.
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major human pathogen whose genotypic diversity results in unpredictable pandemics and epidemics. Interaction with the cell nucleus is essential to IAV infection, allowing recruitment of cellular components to facilitate virus replication. Viral proteins are also targeted to the nucleolus, a subnuclear structure involved in ribosomal biogenesis, RNA maturation, stress response, and control of cell growth, but the functional consequences of this are unclear. We took an unbiased approach to studying IAV-nucleolar interactions by using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to quantify changes in the nucleolar proteome following infection with A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) strains of the virus. Only a minority of nucleolar proteins showed significant changes in abundance after infection; these alterations were mostly different between the two strains but could be validated by confocal microscopy of infected cells. Many of the affected proteins comprised functional groupings, including components of ribonuclease P, RNA polymerase I, the MLL1 histone methyltransferase complex, as well as nuclear paraspeckles and the RNA editing apparatus. This, as well as comparison with other viruses that cause changes in the nucleolar proteome, suggests that IAV targets specific nucleolar pathways.
Emmott et al. (2010) Elucidation of the avian nucleolar proteome by quantitative proteomics and alterations in infectious bronchitis virus infected cells.
The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear compartment involved in ribosome subunit biogenesis, regulation of cell stress and modulation of cellular growth and the cell cycle, among other functions. The nucleolus is composed of complex protein/protein and protein/RNA interactions. It is a target of virus infection with many viral proteins being shown to localize to the nucleolus during infection. Perturbations to the structure of the nucleolus and its proteome have been predicted to play a role in both cellular and infectious disease. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS with bioinformatic analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to investigate whether the nucleolar proteome altered in virus-infected cells. In this study, the avian nucleolar proteome was defined in the absence and presence of virus, in this case the positive strand RNA virus, avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Data sets, potential protein changes and the functional consequences of virus infection were validated using independent assays. These demonstrated that specific rather than generic changes occurred in the nucleolar proteome in infectious bronchitis virus-infected cells.
Emmott et al. (2010) Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) reveals changes in the cytoplasmic, nuclear and nucleolar proteomics of cells infected with the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus.
Virus-host interactions involve complex interplay between viral and host factors, rendering them an ideal target for proteomic analysis. Here we detail a high throughput quantitative proteomics analysis of Vero cells infected with the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a positive strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify 1830 cellular and two viral proteins from IBV-infected cells. Fractionation of cells into cytoplasmic, nuclear, and nucleolar extracts was used to reduce sample complexity and provide information on the trafficking of proteins between the different compartments. Each fraction showed a proportion of proteins exhibiting >or=2-fold changes in abundance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins that changed in response to infection could be grouped into different functional categories. These included proteins regulated by NF-kappaB- and AP-1-dependent pathways and proteins involved in the cytoskeleton and molecular motors. A luciferase-based reporter gene assay was used to validate the up-regulation of AP-1- and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in IBV-infected cells and confirmed using immunofluorescence. Immunofluorescence was used to validate changes in the subcellular localization of vimentin and myosin VI in IBV-infected cells. The proteomics analysis also confirmed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein as localizing in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus and the viral membrane protein in the cytoplasmic fraction. This research is the first application of SILAC to study total host cell proteome changes in response to positive sense RNA virus infection and illustrates the versatility of this technique as applied to infectious disease research.
Emmott & Hiscox (2009) Nucleolar targeting: the hub of the matter.
The nucleolus is a dynamic structure that has roles in various processes, from ribosome biogenesis to regulation of the cell cycle and the cellular stress response. Such functions are frequently mediated by the sequestration or release of nucleolar proteins. Our understanding of protein targeting to the nucleolus is much less complete than our knowledge of membrane-spanning translocation systems–such as those involved in nuclear targeting–and the experimental evidence reveals that few parallels exist with these better-characterized systems. Here, we discuss the current understanding of nucleolar targeting, explore the types of sequence that control the localization of a protein to the nucleolus, and speculate that certain subsets of nucleolar proteins might act as hub proteins that are able to bind to multiple protein targets. In parallel to other subnuclear structures, such as PML bodies, the proteins that are involved in the formation and maintenance of the nucleolus are inexorably linked to nucleolar trafficking.
Leppard, Emmott, Cortese & Rich (2009) Adenovirus type 5 E4 Orf3 protein targets promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein nuclear domains for disruption via a sequence in PML isoform II that is predicted as a protein interaction site by bioinformatic analysis.
Human adenovirus type 5 infection causes the disruption of structures in the cell nucleus termed promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein nuclear domains or ND10, which contain the PML protein as a critical component. This disruption is achieved through the action of the viral E4 Orf3 protein, which forms track-like nuclear structures that associate with the PML protein. This association is mediated by a direct interaction of Orf3 with a specific PML isoform, PMLII. We show here that the Orf3 interaction properties of PMLII are conferred by a 40 aa residue segment of the unique C-terminal domain of the protein. This segment was sufficient to confer interaction on a heterologous protein. The analysis was informed by prior application of a bioinformatic tool for the prediction of potential protein interaction sites within unstructured protein sequences (predictors of naturally disordered region analysis; PONDR). This tool predicted three potential molecular recognition elements (MoRE) within the C-terminal domain of PMLII, one of which was found to form the core of the Orf3 interaction site, thus demonstrating the utility of this approach. The sequence of the mapped Orf3-binding site on PML protein was found to be relatively poorly conserved across other species; however, the overall organization of MoREs within unstructured sequence was retained, suggesting the potential for conservation of functional interactions.
Emmott et al. (2008) Viral nucleolar localisation signals determine dynamic trafficking within the nucleolus.
Localisation of both viral and cellular proteins to the nucleolus is determined by a variety of factors including nucleolar localisation signals (NoLSs), but how these signals operate is not clearly understood. The nucleolar trafficking of wild type viral proteins and chimeric proteins, which contain altered NoLSs, were compared to investigate the role of NoLSs in dynamic nucleolar trafficking. Three viral proteins from diverse viruses were selected which localised to the nucleolus; the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid (N) protein, the herpesvirus saimiri ORF57 protein and the HIV-1 Rev protein. The chimeric proteins were N protein and ORF57 protein which had their own NoLS replaced with those from ORF57 and Rev proteins, respectively. By analysing the sub-cellular localisation and trafficking of these viral proteins and their chimeras within and between nucleoli using confocal microscopy and photo-bleaching we show that NoLSs are responsible for different nucleolar localisations and trafficking rates.
Matthews, Emmott & Hiscox (2011) Viruses and the nucleolus. In The nucleolus, ed. M. Olson. 321-343